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Tuesday, November 24, 2020

Career Kokua Glossary

You may find words within this site that might not seem familiar. This section may help clarify the meaning to those words. Scroll down or choose a letter from the list below to view all the words and their meanings.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S
T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Ability - A natural talent or acquired skill. Typing, for example, is an acquired skill because one must learn how to type. In contrast, a natural talent is something one can do well, even without taking lessons. For some people, playing a musical instrument may be a natural talent. Occupations require different abilities.

ACINet - America's Career InfoNet. ACINet is a web-based tool for job seekers, employers, human resource specialists, and workforce development specialists. On this website, which is part of the U.S. Department of Labor's Career One-Stop Center System, users can learn about typical wages and employment trends across occupations and industries; check education, knowledge, skills, and abilities against requirements for most occupations; search for employer contact information nationwide, cost of living data and call up state profiles with labor market conditions; and find nearly 5,500 external links to the most extensive set of career resources available on the Internet.

Accreditation - Approval from a recognized authority showing that a school has met certain standards in its education programs, services, and facilities.

Achievement Tests - Standard tests that are designed to measure a person's knowledge in specific academic areas. The SAT II Subject Tests are some of the most common achievement tests used in college admissions and course placement to assess a prospective student's proficiency in a subject area. These tests are not required by most schools.

ACK - America's Career Kit. The U.S. Department of Labor's predecessor to Career One-Stop.

ACRN - America's Career Resource Network. The ACRN is made up of state entities that work to improve career decision-making of students and their parents by relating educational decisions and experience to occupational exploration, career choice, and vocational preparation.

ACSCI - Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information. Formed in 1978, ACSCI is a professional association dedicated to the advancement of career information and its delivery. ACSCI has worked to advance the quality of information technology, career information, and user-services through standards, professional development opportunities, and public information.

ACT - (American College Testing) A four-part examination designed to measure a student's scholastic development. The test covers English, mathematics, social studies, and natural sciences. Many colleges require students to take this test and submit their test scores when they apply for admission. Some colleges accept this test or the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT I). Most students take the ACT or the SAT during their junior or senior year of high school.

ACTE - Association for Career and Technical Education. Formerly known as American Vocational Association, ACTE is the largest national educational association dedicated to the advancement of education to prepare youth and adults for careers.

Active Duty - Full-time service by armed forces personnel. Those in the Reserve or National Guard have at least 14 days of active duty each year; weekend training does not qualify as active duty.

Activities Handbook - A curriculum guide of activities, lesson plans, and worksheets for infusing Career Kokua into various subject areas.

ADA - (Americans with Disabilities Act) Law that prohibits discrimination against the disabled and handicapped in employment and many other areas. The ADA prohibits discrimination against qualified disabled individuals who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the job. Reasonable accommodations include making existing facilities readily accessible and usable by the individual with the disability. This can mean job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, reassignment to a vacant position, acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, appropriate adjustment or modification of examinations, training materials or policies, providing qualified readers or interpreters, and similar accommodations.

Admission - Acceptance of students to enter or enroll in a school or program of study at a college or university.

Admissions Requirements - Conditions that applicants must meet in order to be admitted to an educational institution. In general, applicants must have a grade point average or test scores above a set level. Additional requirements are experience and references. Some schools require an interview.

Advanced Placement (AP) - A service of the College Board that provides high schools with course descriptions in college subjects and Advanced Placement Examinations in those subjects. High schools teach the courses and give the examinations to interested students. Those who pass the exams are eligible for advanced placement, college credit, or both.

Advancement Opportunities - A topic in Career Kokua's Occupations file that describes the path a specific career follows as workers gain skills and further training. The path generally occurs as a person moves into positions with more responsibility. Workers can advance within one company or across several organizations. One example of advancement would be rising from lawyer to partner in a firm, and then to managing partner.

Advisor - Person directing a student toward the courses that will complete the student's educational goal. Each enrolled student is usually assigned an advisor who serves to provide information on requirements of various programs of study and career options.

Affirmative Action - A federal law that makes it illegal for an employer not to hire or promote someone because of their race, color, gender, religion, or national origin. This law is also used in college admissions to increase the number of people from underrepresented groups.

Air Force - The branch of the armed forces that trains troops for fighting in the air, rather than on the ground or water. Support personnel, such as airplane mechanics and air traffic controllers, are also trained by the Air Force. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

Air National Guard - Pilots and support personnel who provide civilian defense. In peacetime, they help with disaster relief and maintain peace and order. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

AJB (America's Job Bank) - Developed by the U.S. Department of Labor, AJB is the biggest and busiest job market in cyberspace. Job seekers can search for job openings and post their résumés where thousands of employers search every day.

ALMIS (America's Labor Market Information System) - ALMIS provides consistent, accessible labor market information (LMI) products, tools, and services. Consortia of states have been working with the U.S. Employment and Training Administration (ETA) to develop a nationwide infrastructure of application systems – America's Job Bank (AJB), Career One-Stop Center System, America's Service Locator (ASL) and America's Career InfoNet (ACINet). ALMIS provides the common definitions, content requirements, and technical standards that underpin these systems.

Applicant - An individual who is asking to be considered for a job, scholarship, loan, or for admission to a school.

Application - A written form for gathering information about an individual. This form is filled out when applying for a job, scholarship, loan, or admission to a school. Go to Job Search Aids for more information about job applications.

Apprentice - A worker who is learning, according to a contractual agreement, a recognized skilled craft or trade. Apprenticeships require one or more years of training; on-the-job experience is supplemented by related instruction.

Apprenticeship - A relationship between an employer and an employee during which the worker, or apprentice, learns a trade. Training is on the job as well as in the classroom. Apprenticeships generally last about four years, but range from one to six years. During this time, apprentices work with an experienced worker. Under this worker's guidance, the apprentice learns the trade. As they gain skill, apprentices work with less supervision. Apprenticeship training programs are usually registered with the Department of Labor or the State Apprenticeship Agency. The programs provide training under conditions specified in a written apprenticeship agreement. Go to the Programs of Study and Training file for the Apprenticeship information in Career Kokua which provides information about apprenticeship training in Hawaii, including a list of apprenticeable occupations, details about training, and application procedures and contacts.

Armed Forces - The collective term for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

Aptitudes - Specific capacities or abilities required of an individual in order to facilitate the learning of some task.

Army - The branch of the armed forces that trains troops mainly for fighting on the ground, rather than in the air or on the water. Jobs range from general administration to the operation and maintenance of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, and electrical systems. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

Assessment - A measurement of interests, abilities, or other characteristics for use in planning. An assessment instrument is a tool such as a formal interview or a questionnaire used to gain information about an individual to help them better understand their own strengths or preferences. Go to the Career Assessments channel and complete one or more of Career Kokua's assessments to learn about self and to get a list of occupations for further exploration and consideration.

Associate Degree (A.A., A.S., A.A.S., and A.O.S.) - An undergraduate degree that can be earned at two-year colleges and professional-technical schools. The associate of arts (AA) or associate of science (AS) degree is granted after students complete a program of study similar to the first two years of a four-year college curriculum. The associate of applied science (AAS) and associate of occupational studies (AOS) degrees are awarded upon completion of a two-year technical or vocational program of study.

ASVAB - Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. ASVAB is a timed, multi-aptitude test that helps students identify their abilities via eight modules: Word Knowledge, Paragraph Comprehension, Mathematics Knowledge, Arithmetic Reasoning, General Science, Auto and Shop Information, Mechanical Comprehension, and Electronics Information. ASVAB scores allow students to compare their test performance to a national sample of students at their grade level. A link to a downloadable ASVAB test is available in the Career Assessments channel

Attributes - Characteristics of information used to identify occupations, schools, etc. for exploration.

Average - An average is a single value that summarizes or represents a set of unequal values. For example, you can add up the years a group of workers have worked in in a particular occupation, then divide that total by the number of workers, to get the average number of years that group of workers have worked in that occupation.

Bachelor's (or Baccalaureate) Degree (B.A., B.S.) - A degree received after the satisfactory completion of four- or five-years of full-time study at a college or university. Sometimes called baccalaureate degrees, they are more often called either Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degrees. Policies concerning the awarding of B.A. and B.S. degrees vary from college to college.

Basic Employability Skills - The work habits and social skills employers desire in their employees. Examples include responsibility, communication, and a positive outlook. Employers also prefer workers who cooperate, are helpful, and on time. They also look for workers who are organized and flexible.

Basic Pay - The amount of pay a military employee receives. The pay rate is determined by the individual's pay grade (rank) and years of military service. Basic pay does not include allowances such as food and lodging.

Basic Training - The initial military training provided to all new enlisted personnel. The purpose of basic training is to prepare enlistees mentally and physically for the military role. Basic training lasts from six to ten weeks, depending on the service. Each service has its own basic training.

BestCollegeDeals - A program that provides personalized financial aid guidance. BestCollegeDeals lets students and their families compare costs-including tuition, fees, room, and board-and financial aid offerings from colleges in the U.S. The program then estimates how much a family may be expected to contribute toward their student's education and determine their out-of-pocket cost of attendance. Go to the Financial Aid channel to use this program.

BLS - Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is the principal fact-finding agency for the federal government in the field of labor economics and statistics.

Bulletin 15 - A Department of Education publication of sources of financial aid for the residents of Hawaii.

Business School/College - A school where students learn about business. Business colleges focus on word processing and other clerical support skills. Business schools at colleges and universities offer a variety of business courses, such as management and accounting.

Calendar - The system by which an academic institution divides the year into periods for instruction and awarding credit. The most common calendars are those based on the semester, trimester, and quarter. Some schools use the Four-One-Four (4-1-4) system. This is a four-month term, a one-month inter-session, and a four-month term.

Campus - The location, setting, and buildings of a school, college, university, or corporation.

Career - A person's life work pattern; the way in which the individual expresses himself and relates to society through work. It can include education, training, politics, occupations, home, and family; a total progression.

Career Carnival - A software program which uses riddles and puzzles to teach students about occupations. Designed for students in grades 3 - 7.

Career Clusters - Career Clusters are used to structure career exploration and educational programs. There are a variety of career cluster frameworks, including one created by the U.S. Department of Education that incorporates 16 clusters.

Career Counselor - A trained individual who works with students and job seekers. The counselor can help people figure out what careers interest them, write a resume, and practice for a job interview.

Career Development - Lifelong process of exploring, choosing and acting on educational, occupational and related life role options. In the broadest sense, career development can be understood as that aspect of human development that includes how individuals incorporate their values about work, their beliefs about their own interests and abilities, their decisions about education, the ways they negotiate transitions into and out of work experiences and their unique interactions between work and other life roles.

Career Exploration - 1) Researching what you want to do for your career. It includes learning about your self, what you like and dislike. It also includes learning about occupations and the workplace. Once you have gained insight into both areas, use what you know about yourself to make decisions about what occupation(s) fit you. Then explore your decisions through job shadowing, volunteering, or an internship. 2) A channel on the Career Kokua web site that provides information on occupations, industries, self-employment, military careers, career pathways, and other career exploration links.

Career Goal - Something that a person wants to achieve related to the sequence of occupations and other life roles that express his or her commitment to work and reflect a total pattern of self-development.

Career Information - Information about education and work. Career information includes personal, social, educational, and occupational information emphasizing the user's individual characteristics, attributes, skills, knowledge, interests, values, and aptitudes. Career decision makers and career guidance professionals use career information to discover and explore occupational opportunities, related education and training programs, schools, and financial aid.

Career Ladder - The path a specific career follows as workers advance. The path generally occurs as a person moves into positions with more responsibility. Workers can follow career ladders within one firm or company or across several organizations. One example of a career ladder would be rising from lawyer to partner in the firm to managing partner. In Career Kokua's Occupations files, you can find this information in the Advancement Opportunities topic.

Career Management - The active and conscious participation in shaping one's career and accepting responsibility for the activities and choices made toward that end.

Career Paths (or Pathways) - Clusters of occupations/careers that are combined together because the people in them share similar interests and strengths. All paths include a variety of occupations requiring different levels of education and training. The six Hawaii Career Pathways are Arts & Communications, Business, Management & Technology, Health Services, Industrial Technology, Natural Resources, and Public and Human Services.

Career Shadowing - One method for a student to explore their career interests. Usually a day long event where the student observes a worker in an occupation of interest. Use the Community Resources Directory to locate organizations that offer Career Shadowing as one of their career exploration activities.

Career Trek - A software program designed to teach students about the world of work. Designed for elementary students.

Career Videos - An optional component for Career Kokua users. A set of 10 CDs containing 60 to 90 second videos of over 375 occupations The videos are also available on the Career Kokua web site.

Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act - Under the Perkins Act, federal funds support vocational-technical education programs and services for youth and adults. The majority of funds appropriated under the Perkins Act are awarded as grants to state education agencies. These State Basic Grants are allotted to states according to a formula based on state population in certain age groups and per capita income.

Certification - A voluntary process by which a non-governmental organization, such as a professional society or certifying agency, grants recognition to an individual who meets education and experience requirements. An example of an occupation with required certification is Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Certificates must be renewed every few years.

CIDS - Career Information Delivery System. CIDS link occupations to knowledge and skills, link knowledge and skills to programs of study, link programs of study to specific institutions, link specific institutions to costs, and link costs to sources of financial assistance. The ACSCI Standards provide criteria for public and private organizations that are concerned with delivering high quality tools for career development. Their career information and services range from highly specific components, aimed at a single career development function, to comprehensive systems. CIDS are used by young people and adults in public and private elementary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, public and private agencies, rehabilitation firms, libraries, community-based organizations, juvenile and adult correctional facilities, and private businesses.

CIP - Classification of Instruction Programs. The CIP is a taxonomic coding scheme that contains titles and descriptions of postsecondary instructional programs. It was developed to facilitate the National Center for Education Statistics' collection and reporting of postsecondary degree completions by major field of study. CIP uses standard classifications that capture the majority of reportable program activity. Originally published in 1980, the CIP has been revised, with the most recent version published in 2000.

CIS - Career Information System. (1) The model of computerized career information delivery system which is a part of the Career Kokua program. Other models include Discover, GIS. (2) The National Career Information System, now known as intoCareers.

Civilian - A person who is not on active duty in the military.

Cluster - (1) A group of Career Kokua Occupations which share a common, fairly specific function such as providing health services or administering an organization. Occupations within a cluster share a substantial core of skills and are frequently interrelated by production process or work environment. (2) As defined by the US DOE Career Clusters project, are 16 groupings of occupations and broad industries based on commonalities.

Coast Guard - An agency that saves lives and protects property on the oceans, lakes, and rivers of the United States. This group maintains a system of rescue boats, aircraft, and communications systems. In times of war, the Coast Guard operates as part of the Navy. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

College - An institution of higher education that offers a course of studies leading to a bachelor's degree. Many colleges also offer courses leading to a master's or doctoral degree. Colleges are usually smaller and less research-oriented than universities. Most colleges have become universities in the last few years.

College Catalog - A publication sent to prospective students by colleges and universities. It provides information about the campus, professors, courses, and financial aid.

College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) - A program of examinations in undergraduate college courses. The exams provide students and adults the opportunity to demonstrate college-level achievement. The examinations are used by colleges to award credit. Business, industry, government, and professional groups also may use these exams to satisfy educational requirements for advancement, licensing, and admission to training programs.

College-Preparatory Program - Classes that most colleges and university require applicants to have taken. Suggested courses are English, mathematics, social studies, science, and a foreign language.

CollegeQuest - A program which provides college search, college information, and related educational information. Available on the Internet to subscribing Career Kokua schools and user agencies. Go to the Education & Training channel to access CollegeQuest.

Commission - A percentage of the purchase price of an item that is paid to a broker or sales representative. It is a payment a worker receives instead of, or in addition to, wages. Workers who sell expensive items such as cars or houses may be paid only by commission. Workers who work only for commission receive no salary and do not get paid unless they sell items and/or meet their quota of sales.

Common Activities - A topic in Career Kokua's Occupations file that lists the tasks or work activities for that occupation which are also common to other occupations.

Community College - A two-year college that usually is public and serves the residents of a local or regional area. Most of these colleges admit all or most of the students who apply. Some programs, such as nursing, may be more selective. Students receive associate degrees after two years of successful full-time study. Many technical programs of study are also taught at a community college. Students in these programs often enter the job market immediately after graduation. Most students who enter general education programs (equivalent to the first two years of a baccalaureate degree program) transfer to a four-year college or university, often as juniors.

Compensation - Wages given to employees in return for their services. Other types of compensation include health insurance, vacation pay, and contributions to a retirement plan.

Community Resources - A Career Kokua program that promotes career exploration and development through a partnership of schools, government, businesses, professional organizations, and agencies. The Career Kokua Community Resources directory lists career exploration activities and services offered by the businesses and organizations that provide firsthand career information and experiences to students and adults.

Continuing Education - Courses that are available to adults who are not part of a formal degree program. These courses are available at community colleges and through professional associations.

Cooperative Education - A formal arrangement between students and off-campus employers. Students alternate between periods of full-time study and full-time employment in a related field. It may take longer to complete a degree under this program, but students gain practical work experience and are paid for their work.

Coordinator Notebook - Binder of information provided to each location using Career Kokua. It contains reference and training material on Career Kokua's information files and access strategies.

Correspondence Courses - A course usually offered through print media and by mail. Textbooks, study guides, assignments, and tests are provided to students by postal mail. Faculty may connect with students via postal mail, e-mail, telephone, or fax.

Course - A focused collection of instruction offered by an education provider. A course may be made up of one or more classes or labs.

Cover Letter - A letter that is sent with your resume. It points out your skills and experience that relate directly to the job. Go to Job Search Aids to learn about cover letters.

Coworkers - The people you work with at your job.

Credential - A document that entitles a worker to authority or allows him/her to work in a particular field. Often a credential is a license, certificate, or other piece of paper.

Credit for Prior Learning (CPL) - A process in which a student's various kinds of prior learning are evaluated and determined to be equivalent or similar to knowledge and competence being developed in college. A student's past jobs, military service, volunteer work, and self-directed learning can be considered for credit. CPL programs translate these experiences into academic credit. Colleges vary in their participation and in the amount of credit they give for prior learning.

CRCS - Consumer Report Card System. Also known as Kumu A'o, this system, located at provides information on WIA eligible training providers, their programs, and services.

Criteria - Characteristics of information used by Career Kokua to generate lists of colleges, occupations, etc.

Current Employment - The number of people working in a particular Career Kokua occupation. Whenever possible, the figure given in Current Employment includes self-employed as well as people working for wages and salaries. To help users compare an occupation's employment to total employment in the area (Hawaii), Career Kokua uses the annual average employment definitions from HIWI (Hawaii Workforce Informer, March 2005) to obtain the following categories:

Occupation Size
% or fraction of total

2005 Total

Very Small 0% to 1/50% or 0 - .0002
0 - 123
Small 1/50% to 1/10% or .0002 - .001
Medium 1/10% to 1/2% or .001 - .005
617 - 3084
Large 1/2% to 1.0% or .005 - .01
3084 - 6169
Very Large 1.0% or .01+
* labor force employed statewide for 2005 (HIWI, 03.10.06)

Curriculum - The subject matter that teachers and students cover in class. Also, the available courses in a program of study.

Curriculum Vitae - A written summary of a job applicant's education and employment history. A curriculum vitae (sometimes just called a "vita") and a resume are very similar; however, a curriculum vitae generally contains more educational information and is predominantly used by people who work in higher education and the professions

Day Shift - People on this shift of the workday work the "regular" hours of 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. However, people may begin working earlier (for example, 7:00 a.m.) or end working later (for example, 6:00 p.m.).

Decline - This phrase is used in the Outlook topic of Career Kokua's Occupations file. It describes occupations in which the number of workers is expected to decrease over a 10-year period.

Direct Access - The option to access Career Kokua information directly without doing a search but by using titles, assigned codes, and information topics.

Deferred Admission - The practice of permitting students to postpone enrollment for up to one year after acceptance to a college or university.

Degree - An academic title, such as a bachelor's degree (B.A.), awarded to a student who completes the required courses.

Diploma - A document given to high school, college, or university graduates to show that they have completed the required courses. Also, an award for successful completion of a particular vocational or technical program (generally one year, but less than four years of study; also sometimes referred to as a Certificate.)

DLIR - Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, State of Hawaii.

DoD - Department of Defense.

DOE - Department of Education

Discrimination - The act of treating someone differently because of his or her age, race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, or national origin. It is illegal for an employer who has 15 or more employees to decide against hiring or promoting an employee on the basis of these characteristics. Employers with 14 employees or less are not covered under this law. However, some states have regulations preventing these smaller businesses from discriminating.

Displaced Homemaker - A person (typically a homemaker, housewife, or stay-at-home parent) who has worked in the home providing household services for family members, but who has lost their primary source of economic support through death or disability of their spouse, or through divorce. A displaced homemaker needs to gain employment skills in order to earn a living. Services for displaced homemakers are available at six Idaho Centers for New Directions.

Displaced Worker - Someone who is 20 years or older and has lost their job because their employer closed, downsized, or moved away.

Dissertation - The written record of the independent research project of a graduate student (usually a candidate for a doctoral degree) after completing course work and examinations. Dissertations usually take one to three years to complete. The author must show a mastery of knowledge and research skills. To be acceptable, the dissertation must contribute something new to a field of study. Most students are required to make an oral defense of their dissertation

Distance Learning/Education - Distance education is instruction that occurs when the instructor and student are separated by distance or time, or both. A wide array of technologies are currently used to link the instructor and student. Courses are offered via videotape, broadcast television, ITFS (instructional television fixed service), microwave, satellite, interactive video, audio tapes, audioconferencing, CD-ROM, and, increasingly, computer networking-including e-mail, the Internet, and the World Wide Web.

Doctoral Degree - Graduate degree awarded after successfully completing a program of two or more years beyond the bachelor's degree, and in most cases beyond a master's degree. A Ph.D. or Doctor of Philosophy usually requires three or more years. Law (J.D. or Doctor of Jurisprudence) and medical degrees (M.D. or Medical Doctor) require three years.

DOL - United States Department of Labor. The Department of Labor fosters and promotes the welfare of the job seekers, wage earners, and retirees of the United States by improving their working conditions; advancing their opportunities for profitable employment; protecting their retirement and health care benefits; helping employers find workers; strengthening free collective bargaining; and tracking changes in employment, prices, and other national economic measurements. In carrying out this mission, the Department administers a variety of federal labor laws including those that guarantee workers' rights to safe and healthful working conditions; a minimum hourly wage and overtime pay; freedom from employment discrimination; unemployment insurance; and other income support.

DOLETA - United States Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. DOLETA seeks to build up the labor market through training of the workforce and placement of workers in jobs through employment services.

DOT - Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a U.S. Department of Labor publication which defines about 20,000 occupations. Designed as a job placement tool to facilitate matching job requirements and work skills, the DOT uses interrelationships between job tasks and requirements to group occupations. The DOT has been replaced by the O*Net as the nation's primary database of occupational information.

Downsize - To reduce the number of paid employees, on a more permanent basis than a layoff.

Early Admission - The admission of high school students (usually juniors) of superior ability as full-time college students before they graduate from high school. Under early admission (or early entrance), high school juniors are allowed to skip their senior year and enroll in college. This is also known as early entrance.

Earnings - The amount of money paid to a worker as wages, salary, or commission. Wages vary with the worker's experience, level of responsibility, and geographic area.

Education - Knowledge gained by formal instruction.

Education and Training - A channel of information on the Career Kokua web site that includes Programs of Study and Training and Local Schools

Electronic Mail (E-mail) - A system of exchanging messages by means of computers attached to a network or to the Internet. Many e-mail systems allow users to attach and send files and documents with their messages.

Eligible Training Provider - A Training Provider that has been approved by their LWIB and the State of Hawaii to provide training services to WIA participants. Go to Kumu A'o, Hawaii Consumer Report Card for the state's list of eligible training providers.

Employer - Generally a single firm that hires one or more workers and has one or more worksites.

Enlisted Personnel - Employees of the armed forces who are below the rank of a warrant or commissioned officer. These workers conduct the day-to-day operations of the military. Enlisted personnel usually are high school graduates. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

Enlistment - Voluntary entrance into military service as opposed to induction through Selective Service. Enlistment is usually for four years, but can range from two to six years. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

Entrepreneur - A person who organizes, manages, and takes the risks of running a business. Go to Career Kokua's Self-Employment file for more information.

Entry-Level Job - A position in an occupation at the beginning level. For example, in food service an entry-level job would be someone who chops the vegetables for the chef to use.

Evening Shift - People on this shift work during the evening or from late afternoon into the night. This shift may be at the same time as the swing shift (3:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m.) or it may be a shorter time period, such as from 5:00 to 9:00 p.m.

Expected Family Contribution (EFC) - The amount a student and his or her family are expected to pay toward the cost of attendance. It is calculated from the financial information provided by the student and his or her family, including the student's spouse. A Estimated Family Contribution Calculator is available under the Financial Aid channel of the Career Kokua web site. Use this tool to determine what your family is expected to contribute towards the basic cost of attendance (i.e., tuition, fees, and room and board) – and to personalize it to your financial situation.

Faculty - The teachers, professors, and instructors who teach and do research at colleges and universities.

FAFSA -Free Application for Federal Student Aid. In order for students to be eligible to receive student financial aid, an applicant needs to fill out a FAFSA every school year.

Financial Aid - Money awarded to students to help them pay for education. Aid is given as loans, grants, scholarships, or work-study. Some forms of financial aid need to be repaid after graduation. This is is also a channel on the Career Kokua website that contains a Scholarship Search, a database of scholarships and financial aids, BestCollegeDeals, and a link to the FAFSA online.

First Professional Degree - The degree required to practice in certain professions, such as law and medicine. Study usually requires at least six years, including prior college-level work. First professional degrees may be awarded in architecture, chiropractic, dentistry, engineering, law, medicine, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, rabbinical and talmudic studies, theology, and veterinary medicine.

Flexible Week - A work schedule involving a change from the typical 5-day, 8-hour-a-day work week. In the most common pattern, people may work four days a week for ten hours a day. Another example is a schedule where people may work nine hours a day for nine days and get one day off every two weeks.

Flextime - A policy allowing workers to choose the hours they work. Usually the flexible schedule must include certain core hours, such as 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., to allow for meetings and other workplace interactions.

Follow-Up Letter - A letter sent by a job applicant to an interviewer shortly after the interview. A good letter can set an applicant apart from the others. It also provides an opportunity to restate any important points that were discussed during the interview.

Formal Training - A type of training where workers gather to learn about an occupation. The training may involve taking courses at a school or on the work site. For example, a company will offer formal training programs to train multiple workers about their product. In the Career Kokua Occupations file, the Preparation topic lists whether formal or informal training is needed.

Function - A special duty or performance required of a person or thing in the course of work or activity. For example, the function of a Police Patrol Officer is to protect and assist the public. The functional classification system used by Career Kokua to group occupations classifies occupations on the basis of job characteristics or functions. It focuses on the dominant activity or central job duty, not on an overall skill level or some variable which is of little significance to some occupations.

Four-Year College - A college that grants bachelor's degrees after students successfully complete four years of full-time study. Some of these schools offer two-year associate degree programs that students can complete before transferring into a bachelor's degree program. A variety of majors and degrees are available at these colleges; many four-year colleges also offer graduate programs.

Full Time - Usually defined as 40 hours per week. However, it is sometimes defined as 35 hours or more per week. In some organizations, especially for salaried employees, more than 40 hours is considered full time (with no extra pay for the additional hours).

GATB - General Aptitude Test Battery, a standardized test given to measure a variety of aptitude and skill areas. The GATB is a series of 12 short tests that measure an applicant's potential ability to perform certain job related tasks.

GEAR-UP - Gaining Early Awareness & Readiness for Undergraduate Programs. GEAR-UP projects focus on increasing the number of students who aspire to, prepare for, participate in, and succeed in educational opportunities after high school-including four year colleges and universities, two-year colleges, technical colleges, and specialized training programs. GEAR-UP is a community-based, early-intervention program that helps middle-grade students in high-poverty schools begin to plan for college in the crucial early grades through more appropriate academic preparation and information about financial aid.

GCIS - Georgia Career Information System. Career Kokua utilizes the SKILLS program developed by GCIS.

General Education Development Certificate (GED) - Alternative to a high school diploma for people who have dropped out of high school or are otherwise unable to complete a standard high school curriculum.

G.I. Bill Benefits - Money provided to military personnel for educational purposes. Personnel who choose to participate in this program contribute $100 per month during the first 12 months of service. This contribution is nonrefundable. Upon enrollment in an approved educational program (post high school only), funds are released on a monthly basis for up to 36 months. Veterans who were on active-duty for at least three years receive $650 per month; those who served two years on active duty receive $528 per month. This means an individual's contribution of $1,200 will be matched with up to $23,400 by the government. Individuals who receive officer commissions from the service or ROTC scholarship programs are not eligible for this program. This program applies to military personnel who entered active duty after June 30, 1985.

GOE - Guide for Occupational Exploration. GOE was created by the U.S. Department of Labor and uses an intuitive process to relate general interests to career and learning options. The GOE became a standard career reference after its 1977 release. JIST Publishing currently publishes the GOE and it has been completely revised by a JIST team of experts.

Grade Point Average (GPA) - A system used by many schools for evaluating the overall scholastic performance of students. The most common system of numerical values for grades is A = 4, B = 3, C = 2, D = 1, and E or F =0. To find a student's GPA, first multiply the number of hours given for a course by the student's grade in the course to get a grade point for each course. Then add all grade points together for the term and divide by the number of hours of course work taken.

Graduate Student - A student enrolled in an academic program of study above the bachelor's-degree level at a college or university. Typically, these students are enrolled in master's or doctoral programs.

Grant - A form of financial aid that does not have to be repaid or earned through employment. Grant usually refers to an award based on financial need; academic merit may also be required.

Grievance - A formal complaint about a problem at work, such as harassment. Some employers have a specific grievance procedure that must be followed to report and solve the problem.

Gross Pay - The amount of wages or salary before money is deducted for taxes, Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), or dues.

Growing as Fast as Average - This phrase is used in the Outlook topic of Career Kokua's Occupations file. It describes occupations in which the number of workers is expected to increase over a 10-year period at about the same pace as the average for all occupations.

Growing Faster than Average - This phrase is used in the Outlook topic of Career Kokua's Occupations file. It describes occupations in which the number of workers is expected to increase over a 10-year period at a pace faster than the average for all occupations.

Growing More Slowly than Average - This phrase is used in the Outlook topic of Career Kokua's Occupations file. It describes occupations in which the number of workers is expected to increase over a 10-year period. These occupations are expected to grow at a slower pace than the average growth for all occupations.

Growing Much Faster than Average - This phrase is used in the Outlook topic of Career Kokua's Occupations file. It describes occupations in which the number of workers is expected to increase over a 10-year period at a pace much faster than the average for all occupations.

Guidance Desktop - A tool for counselors to assist in managing their student's progress through their college searches. Guidance Desktop is located in the For Coodinators section under the Resources channel.

Harassment - To intentionally irritate or torment someone with annoyances, threats, or demands. (Also see Sexual Harassment)

Hazardous Duty Pay - Additional wages paid to military personnel who engage in dangerous activities. For example, personnel receive hazardous duty pay for activities such as flight or submarine duty, parachute jumping, and explosives demolition.

HCIDS - Hawaii Career Information Delivery System, the official title of Career Kokua.

Health Insurance - A benefit received by many workers and their families. Health insurance usually covers doctor visits, medication, hospitalization, and related medical care.

Help Wanted Ad - An advertisement, appearing in the newspaper, that gives information about an available job. It tells interested applicants who to contact for more information.

High School Diploma or Equivalent - A document that certifies that a student has successfully completed a secondary school program of study or earned satisfactory scores on the tests of General Educational Development (GED) or another state-specified high school equivalency examination.

HireNet Hawaii - A job matching and jobs database for Hawaii employers and job seekers.

Hiring Practices - A topic in the Career Kokua Occupations file. This topic covers what training or experience employers look for when they hire an employee for an occupation. Some occupations have specific requirements whereas others are more varied.

HIWI (Hawaii Workforce Informer) - A web site that provides labor market information for the state of Hawaii.

HOLLAND - A Career Kokua access strategy for occupations based on John Holland's theory of personality types and work environments. Go to the Career Assessments channel to do the HOLLAND assessment.

Hourly Wage - Payment to a worker that is based on the number of hours worked.

HSOICC - Hawaii State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee.

ICDM - Improved Career Decision Making in a Changing World. ICDM materials were first published by the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC) in the early 1980's. The purpose of the ICDM curriculum is to help career development facilitators and their clients make wise decisions as participants in a labor market characterized by accelerating economic, demographic, and technological change. America's Career Resource Network supports and publishes the newly revised ICDM.

Incentive Pay - Additional wages paid to military personnel who engage in dangerous activities. For example, personnel receive hazardous duty pay for activities such as flight or submarine duty, parachute jumping, and explosives demolition. Special pay is also given to officers in certain occupations, such as doctors, dentists, and veterinarians.

Independent Study - An arrangement that allows students to complete some of their college program by studying independently instead of attending scheduled classes and completing group assignments. Students typically plan a program of study with a faculty adviser or committee. Students may report periodically to the committee and submit a final report for evaluation.

Industries - A Career Kokua file of information, located under the Career Exploration channel, describing local industries, the services and products provided by the industries, employment, outlook, and employers.

Industry - A collection of employers grouped according to product, service, or activity. Examples of industries include entertainment, food, oil production, and mining.

Initial Training - Training provided by Career Kokua to new users of the Career Kokua system.

Interdisciplinary - Programs or courses that combine knowledge from a number of subject areas. Such combinations could be biology and physical science or engineering and business.

Interest Profiler - An assessment tool measuring work-related interests. Located in the Career Assessment channel, a list of occupations of interest to the user can be generated from completing the Interest Profiler questionnaire.

Interests - A topic in the Career Kokua Occupations file. The Interest topic lists the interests and work values that workers in an occupation report are important to them.

Internship - A program where a student works for an employer for a specified period of time. The student learns about a particular occupation and practices skills previously learned in the classroom. The student's workplace activities may include special projects, sample tasks related to different occupations, or tasks from a single occupation. Internships may or may not include wages. See the Community Resources file for information on available internships.

Interview (Job Interview) - A meeting between an employer and a potential employee. The employer asks questions about the interviewee's knowledge, skills, and abilities. The interviewee has an opportunity to ask questions about the employer. Go to Job Search Aids to learn about interviews.

Job - A paid position with specific duties, tasks, and responsibilities in a particular place of work (e.g., photographer at Aloha Pictures).

Job Application - A written form for gathering information about an individual applying for a job. Typical information includes the applicant's name, address, phone number, work experience, education, and references.

Job Bank - A computerized listing of job openings that is updated daily. National and local job banks can be found on the World Wide Web. Local job banks can also be accessed at state employment services offices. Many job banks also allow workers to post their resumes.

Job Fair - An event where businesses provide information about their companies to jobseekers.

Job Search - The process of going through the necessary steps to find a job. Go to Job Search Aids to learn about the job search process.

Job Search Aids - This is a module of Career Kokua that provides information for starting and conducting a job search. It includes tips about interviewing, preparing a resume, and writing a cover letter.

Journey-Level Worker - Title given to workers who have finished an apprenticeship in a craft or trade. These workers are also known as Journeymen.

Junior College - A two-year college that usually is public and serves the residents of a local or regional area. Most of these colleges admit all or most of the students who apply. Some programs, such as nursing, may be more selective. Students receive associate degrees after two years of successful full-time study. Junior colleges typically do not offer vocational/technical degrees. Instead, they usually offer the first two years of study leading to a bachelor's degree.

Keeping Your Job - A component of Career Kokua, located under Job Strategies, outlining real-life skills that help you succeed on the job.

Knowledge - A topic in the Career Kokua Occupations file. The Knowledge topic lists areas of experience and training that are needed for success in an occupation.

Labor Force - All people 16 years and older whether they are employed or not.

Labor Market Information (LMI) - Data about workers, jobs, industries, and employers. It includes employment, demographic, and economic data. These data and information are used by job seekers, employers, administrators, planners, information analysts, and policy makers.

Layoffs - Permanent or temporary elimination of jobs by a business. Businesses may lay workers off for many reasons, ranging from seasonal market changes to major recessions. Large employers must provide two months' advance notice when layoffs are coming. A worker who receives notice of a layoff should contact the local employment office to learn what services they are eligible for.

Leave - Official permission to be absent from work or duty, such as vacation, shore leave, or medical leave.

License - Official or legal permission to do a specific thing. Proof of the permission is usually granted in the form of a document or card issued by a governmental agency. The licensing section in the Career Kokua Occupations file provides information about exams and/or fees required for licensing for an occupation, including qualifications for licensing, procedures for obtaining a license, and agencies approved to grant licenses.

Licensing/Certification/Designation/Registration - A topic in the Career Kokua Occupations files that lists requirements workers need to meet for licensing or certification. Common requirements are technical training, education, and experience. In addition, this topic provides names and addresses of licensing agencies.

Life Skills - An individual's abilities in the areas of decision-making, money management, employability, and in relating to other people that help him or her meet challenges and live a healthy and productive life.

Lifelong Learning - Continuing to acquire knowledge and skills, through both formal and informal education, throughout one's life.

Loan - An advance of funds which the borrower must repay under specified conditions.

LOIHI - Labor and Occupational Information Hawaii. One of the Research and Statistics Office's web sites located at

LWIB (Local Workforce Investment Board) - LWIBs are private-sector led bodies responsible for advising the counties on workforce development to support economic development and employment opportunities in their local areas.

Major - The field of academic study in which a student specializes. The courses that constitute the main body of a program of college study.

Manager - An individual who is in charge of a business, a group of people, or an activity.

Manufacturing - The act of making, producing, processing, or fabricating a product. Work may be done by hand or by machine and is usually done in large quantities.

Marine Corps - A branch of the armed forces that works closely with the Navy. Marines serve on Navy ships, protect naval bases, guard embassies, and provide a quick strike force to protect U.S. interests around the world. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

Master's Degree - The first graduate (post-baccalaureate) degree in the liberal arts, sciences, and certain professional fields, usually requiring one to two years of full-time study.

Maternity Leave - The leave time that may be taken from a job before or after the birth of a baby.

Matriculation - Enrollment at a college or university in a certificate or degree program.

MCK Jr. - The version of Micro-Career Kokua for middle and intermediate schools. MCK Jr., which consisted of the HOLLAND personality types assessment and the Occupations information, was discontinued in 2006.

Median - In Career Kokua's Occupations file, wages are expressed as a median. The median is the middle wage of all the wages reported. Half of the workers surveyed in this occupation earn less than the median wage and half earn more than the median wage. The median wage is a reliable indicator of relative wages since it is unaffected by abnormal wage distributions.

Mentor - An experienced person who supports, coaches, and guides an inexperienced worker. This individual is often the same person who provides skill training at a worksite.

Mentorship - A formal relationship between a student or worker and a worksite role model who provides support and encouragement. A mentor helps a student or worker become accustomed to the rules, norms, and expectations of the workplace. The mentor provides career insight and guidance based on personal career experience. Use the Community Resources Directory to locate mentorships.

Merit-based - Financial aid that is dependent on academic, artistic, or athletic merit. This type of aid does not require demonstration of financial need.

Micro-CK - (also MCK) Career Kokua delivery mode using on-site microcomputers for the delivery of Career Kokua information files and access strategies.

Middle-range wages - In the Career Kokua Occupations file, the middle range of wages are reported. The middle range of wages are the middle 50 percent of the wages for all workers surveyed. Twenty-five percent of those surveyed earned less than the middle range and 25 percent earned more than the middle range.

Military Employment - A component of Career Kokua that provides information about occupations and work life in the military.

Minimum Wage - The lowest legal hourly wage that can be paid to employees. The minimum wage in Hawaii is $6.75 per hour until December 31, 2006 and will be $7.25 per hour beginning January 1, 2007. Under certain conditions, "tipped employees" may be paid up to 25 cents less per hour. The federal minimum wage for covered, nonexempt employees is $5.15/hour.

Minor - 1) The subjects that make up a secondary concentration of college study. 2) An individual who is under 18 years of age. Minors are not allowed to work in certain jobs and can only work during certain hours of the day.

NAICS - North American Industry Classification System. NAICS is the industry classification system used by the statistical agencies of the United States. NAICS replaced the SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) in 1997.

National Guard - One of seven reserve forces the government can activate in times of war or emergency. The National Guard differs from the Reserve because it is responsible to state governments as well as the federal government. The National Guard often helps local governments deal with national disasters such as floods or hurricanes. They also help during times of disorder such as riots. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

National Schools - Also called CollegeQuest. A component of Career Kokua that includes college searches and information on two- and four-year colleges and universities throughout the United States. Go to the Education & Training channel for access to National Schools.

Navy - The branch of the armed forces that trains troops mainly for fighting on the water, rather than in the air or on the ground. Jobs range from radio operation and computer programming to ship electricians and boiler technicians. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

NCDA - National Career Development Association. NCDA is a division of the American Counseling Association (ACA). The mission of NCDA is to promote the lifelong career development of all people. To achieve this mission, NCDA provides service to the public and professionals involved with, or interest in, career development, including professional development activities, publications, research, public information, professional standards, advocacy, and recognition for achievement and service.

NCDG - National Career Development Guidelines. A framework for building and evaluating comprehensive career development programs for youth and adults in a variety of settings. Educators, counselors, career development professionals, or administrators can use the framework to create high quality career development programs for youth and adults in a variety of settings. Go to the Resources channel for the NCDG information.

Need-based - Financial aid that is dependent on demonstration of financial need. Most sources of financial aid that are provided by the government are need-based.

Needs Analysis Form - A form that is completed by the student and his or her family to determine the expected family contribution. Schools decide which forms they will accept.

Net Pay - The amount of wages or salary remaining after money is deducted for taxes, Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), or dues.

Networking - For job seekers, the process of contacting friends, relatives, acquaintances, and co-workers about job leads. This way job seekers hear about more jobs and their names are more likely to reach potential employers.

Night School - Evening classes offered by a high school, college, or university for individuals who work during the day.

Night Shift - People on this shift work during evening, nighttime, and/or early morning hours. This time period ranges approximately from 11:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. It may also be called the graveyard shift or night-owl shift. This shift operates most often in factories, hospitals, and restaurants that operate 24 hours a day. It may apply to firefighters, and police officers.

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) - NCLB is the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. NCLB embodies four key principles--stronger accountability for results; greater flexibility for states, school districts, and schools in the use of federal funds; more choices for parents of children from disadvantaged backgrounds; and an emphasis on teaching methods that have been demonstrated to work. The Act also places an increased emphasis on reading, especially for young children; enhancing the quality of our nation's teachers; and ensuring that all children in America's schools learn English.

NOICC - National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee. Congress established NOICC in 1976 as a federal-state partnership that provided a framework for addressing workforce development and career preparation. In 1998 the new Workforce Investment Act transferred NOICC's occupational information functions to the Secretary of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Employment and Training Administration. The Perkins Act moved NOICC's career development authority to the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Non-Traditional Occupation - An occupation not traditionally performed by members of a particular sex (e.g., male secretary or female construction worker), defined specifically as nontraditional for a worker of a particular sex if other workers of the same sex make up 25% or less of all workers in that occupation.

Non-Wage Compensation - Payment given as a benefit rather than cash. Common benefits include health and life insurance, vacation, sick leave, and retirement plans. Other benefits include dependent (elder or child) care, family leave, summers off, employee assistance programs, sabbaticals, savings plans, and discounted merchandise or airfare. Some occupations provide expense allowances for travel or meals, company cars, stock option plans, profit sharing, and tuition assistance for the worker and/or dependents.

Noncredit Courses - Courses or activities that earn no academic credit toward a degree, diploma, certificate, or other formal award. (Note: Many noncredit courses do award certificates of completion). Noncredit courses are often available from corporations, nonprofit organizations, continuing education and distance learning departments of colleges and universities, and remedial skills providers.

O*NET - The Occupational Information Network. O*NET is a national database accessible from any web browser. It contains comprehensive information on job requirements and worker competencies. O*NET replaced the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and is the nation's primary source of occupational information.

Occupations - (1) Identifies the nature of work of employees; (2) Career Kokua information file describing over 90% of the employment in the state of Hawaii.

Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH). A publication from the U.S. Department of Labor describing what workers do on the job for a wide range of occupations in the United States. Working conditions, training and education needed, earnings, and expected job prospects are also described.

Officer - A member of the armed forces who acts as a leader, planner, and director of military activities and personnel. Officers are usually college graduates but high school graduates can work their way up. Officers hold the rank of second lieutenant or ensign or above. Go to Career Kokua's Military Information files for more information.

OIS - Occupational Information System. A computerized system that provides information on occupational supply and demand, education and training programs, current and projected employment for state and sub-state areas, wages, occupational profiles by industry, and related information.

One-Stop Career Centers - State networks of conveniently located centers that each provide employment, education, and training services all in one place. Some One-Stop Career Centers have all employment, training, and education partners and their programs on-site, while others have only selected partners and programs on-site. They are conveniently located within communities and provide a wealth of information and assistance for job seekers, education and training seekers, and employers.

On-line - Connected to, served by, or available through a computer system or the Internet, such as an on-line college course.

On-The-Job Training (OJT) - Practical job training that takes place in an actual work situation. Training can last from several hours to several months depending on the skills to be learned. Also called informal training.

Open Admissions - The college admissions policy of admitting virtually all applicants with high school diplomas or their equivalent. Conventional academic qualifications such as high school subjects taken, high school grades, and admissions test scores, are not used to limit enrollment.

Orientation - One or more days of activities, discussions, and events provided by a college or university. This session is held before the term begins and is designed to prepare new students for college life. Examples of discussion topics include financial aid, study skills, and registration for classes.

Outlook - The section of the Career Kokua Occupations file which describes the relationship between supply (workers) and demand (jobs) for an occupation. "Balance" means the number of people seeking work in an occupation is equal to the number of job openings; "Surplus" means there are more people seeking work in an occupation than there are job openings; "Shortage" means there are fewer people seeking work in the occupation than there are job openings. This section also describes the factors which affect the occupational outlook.

Overtime - Work beyond 40 hours in one week.

Overtime Pay - In jobs that pay by the hour, wages paid for time spent beyond eight hours a day or 40 hours a week. Overtime pay is often at a higher rate, often at time and a half (1.5 times the normal rate).

Overview - In Career Kokua's Occupations file, this topic describes what workers do in an occupation.

Parent Information - Because parents have a vital role to play in their children's career development, Career Kokua provides information that can help parents and families help their children do well in school, discover their talents, make sure they get the education and skills to develop those talents, and send them off well-prepared for a good career. Go to the Resources channel for the Parent resources and information.

Part-Time Work - Employment for less than 35 hours a week. Part-time employees often do not receive the benefits given to full-time workers.

Pell Grant - Money awarded directly to students by the federal government. Only undergraduate students may receive federal Pell Grants. To apply for a federal Pell Grant and other federal financial aid, fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA).

Peterson's - Vendor of national school information and other related educational data.

Ph.D. - Abbreviation for Doctor of Philosophy. A Ph.D. is a doctorate (or doctoral) degree, usually based on at least 3 years of graduate study and a dissertation. It is the highest degree awarded by a graduate school.

Physical Demands - A topic in Career Kokua Occupations file. Physical demands are the physical activities such as lifting that workers must perform in different occupations. Only the physical demands that are present on a job at least half of the time are listed in an occupation.

Pono Portfolio - A program provided by Career Kokua to help its users organize their career and educational information and plans. The Pono Portfolio provides convenient storage of career information, educational plans, résumés, transcripts, letters of reference, statements of philosophy, awards and honors, and examples of work.

Postsecondary education - Education or training after high school.

Practicum - A supervised learning experience during which you practice in the workplace what you've learned in your program of study.

Preparation - A topic of Career Kokua's Occupations file that describes the education, training, and experience workers need to enter an occupation. Some occupations require formal training such as a bachelor's degree. Most occupations require at least a high school diploma or General Equivalency Development (GED). This topic also includes information about recommended high school or college courses as well as suggested internships, summer work, or volunteer experience.

Prerequisite - A requirement for registration in a particular course of study. For example, a beginning course in psychology may be a "prerequisite" to an advanced course. Some programs have a prerequisite that the student be a high school graduate or have a G.E.D. to gain admission.

Private Institutions - Colleges, universities, or career schools that provide courses and are operated by a private individual, non-governmental, for profit or not-for-profit organizations. These schools are funded mostly by tuition, fees, donations, and sources other than public money.

Profession - A type of occupation that requires a high level of education and usually a license or certificate. Occupations such as doctor and lawyer are recognized as professions.

Professional Degree - Degree such as architecture, law, medicine, or dentistry. (also see First Professional Degree)

Professional Organization/Association - An organization composed of individuals in the same occupation. These groups protect the interests of their members, keep them up to date on issues affecting their profession, and publish magazines or newsletters. Many of these groups provide career information to students. Some organizations license or certify their members. See the Community Resources module for organizations and associations in Hawaii that are available to provide first-hand career exploration activities.

Program - A specified series of courses which, when taken collectively, presumes the development of some prescribed knowledge or competency, leading to a degree, diploma, or certificate.

Programs of Study and Training - Career Kokua file listing courses, degrees and postsecondary schools for a particular area of study.

Promotion - Advancement to a job with higher status, pay, or responsibility.

Proprietary School - A school operated by an individual, partnership, or corporation as a business, for profit. Usually a proprietary school is a trade school.

Qualifications - The abilities, skills, talents, diplomas, licenses, training, or accomplishments that make a person eligible for a job.

R & S - Research and Statistics Office.

Raise - An increase in pay. A raise is usually given as a reward for good work. Some employers give employees a raise after they have worked at the company for a set period of time (such as a year).

Rate - The wages paid for a particular time period, such as by the hour or day.

Real Game - The Real Game series includes six programs designed to bring real life into the classroom. The curriculum focuses on teaching employability skills through non-threatening role-play activities. The Real Game Series is a partnership guided by an Operations Group with membership from America's Career Resource Network Association, National Life/Work Center, Inc., and Real Game, Inc.

Recruit - An individual who has been accepted by the military and has signed the enlistment contract.

References - Former employers who are willing to talk to a prospective employer about the job applicant. References are listed on a resume or job application. Three references are usually required. An applicant should be able to provide the name, address, and telephone number of people who are references. Applicants should receive permission from references to list their names.

Registrar - The official at an educational institution who is responsible for maintaining student records and for corresponding with applicants and evaluating their transcripts or other credentials.

Registration - A student's enrollment in a specific course.

Related Career Kokua Information - A connection between the Career Kokua information currently being viewed and other Career Kokua information. For example, an occupation may be linked to other occupations, education and training programs, or other industries.

Resume - A written summary of a job applicant's education and employment history. Go to Job Search Aids to learn about resumes.

Salary - A fixed amount of money paid to an employee in return for work.

SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test - National college admissions tests. The SAT I tests verbal and mathematical reasoning abilities. The SAT II tests specific high school subjects. Many colleges require students to take these tests and submit their test scores when they apply for admission. Most students take the SAT during their junior or senior year of high school.

SCANS - The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. The Former U.S. Secretary of Labor, Lynn Martin, chartered The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) in 1990 with the goal of encouraging a high-performance economy characterized by high-skill, high-wage employment. DOL sought to accomplish this by defining critical skills that everyone needs in order to succeed in the workforce and in life. Called the "SCANS skills," these competencies were then compiled into a report in 1991 called A SCANS Report for America 2000. The final report defined a high-performance workplace as one that reinforces the foundation and application of skills such as computation and literacy. Additionally, the report stated that high-performance workers need advanced soft skills, including the ability to work on teams, solve complex problems in systems, and understand and use technology.

Scheduled Work Week - Work hours per day required by an employer. A 40-hour workweek (usually 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.) is standard in many occupations. Some occupations expect overtime; not all pay for it. Irregular hours are more likely in occupations such as nursing or airplane travel. Hours may change weekly, such as moving from day shift to night shift, or even change daily. Hours can be called irregular if workers normally work a non-regular shift, such as evening shift, night shift, or weekends.

Scholarship - A form of financial aid which generally does not have to be repaid or earned through employment and usually includes academic merit as criteria. Financial need may also be required. The Financial Aid channel includes a scholarship search and descriptions of financial assistance sources.

School - A person, firm, or institution whose primary purpose is to provide education or training in one or more specified program areas of instruction. Go to the Local Schools file under the Education & Training channel for information about Hawaii schools.

School-Based Learning - School-sponsored career learning activities that occur at a school, primarily in a classroom setting. Activities may include school-based enterprises, professional/technical education, pre-employment or work readiness training, career awareness and exploration, workplace simulations, and basic educational skills training. Also referred to as School-Site Learning.

Section 118 - Section 118 of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act created America's Career Resource Network.

School-to-Work (STW) - An approach to workforce preparation that has three basic elements: school-based learning, work-based learning, and connecting activities.
This is also a component of CIS that lists school-to-work programs in the state. A description of the program and participating schools is given.

Seasonal Employee - An individual who works only during certain seasons of the year. For example, farm workers who harvest crops only work during the summer and fall.

Secondary School - The school that follows middle school or junior high and precedes college. Secondary school covers grades 9 or 10 through 12. These schools offer general, vocational, college-preparatory, and technical coursework.

Selective Service - A government agency that keeps a list of men who might be called on to serve the United States in a national emergency, such as a war. Registration is mandatory for almost all men in the United States, ages 18 through 25 years old.

Self Directed Search (SDS) - An assessment test given to students to direct them toward occupations that may be of interest. In the Assessment Link component of CIS, a list of occupations of interest to a student can be generated from that student's SDS scores.

Self-Employment - The act of earning a living by working for yourself rather than for others. Self-employed workers may create and sell products or services. Some contract independently for work with others. This is also a component of Career Kokua that contains information about owning your own business.

Semester - An academic calendar period of about 18 weeks that makes up half of the usual academic year for schools that use this calendar system.

Semester Hour - A unit of class work for which a student earns one academic credit for about one hour of classroom study per week for one semester.

Self-Concept - The inner picture a person has of himself or herself, especially regarding his or her competence, worth, and attractiveness.

Self-Efficacy - A person's belief that she or he can achieve a desired outcome.

Sexual Harassment - Unwanted, repeated sexual behavior that one person imposes on another. People who are being sexually harassed have the right to report the person who is harassing them. See Keeping Your Job for more information.

Shift - A period of time, usually eight hours, worked by employees.

SIC - Standard Industrial Classification. The SIC was originally developed in the 1930s to classify and compare establishments by the type of activity in which they were primarily engaged regarding various facets of the U.S. economy. The SIC was replaced by NAICS in 1997.

Sick Days/Sick Leave - Days a sick employee can take off from work and not lose any pay. In many jobs, employees earn one sick day for each month of full-time work they do.

Site Coordinator - Staff person responsible for the implementation of Career Kokua at their site.

Skills - The learned abilities and knowledge which must be developed for successful job performance

Skills and Abilities - A topic in the Career Kokua Occupations file that lists the types of skills or abilities that are needed for an occupation. A few examples are communication, problem solving, and time management skills.

SKILLS - One of Career Kokua's assessments (see Career Assessments) which identifies and matches users' skills and priorities to occupations.

SOC - Standard Occupational Classification. The SOC system is used by all federal statistical agencies to classify workers into occupational categories for the purpose of collecting, calculating, or disseminating data.

Social Security Benefits - Money paid to eligible individuals. Benefits are determined by an individual's earnings, date of birth, and type of benefit.

Social Security Number - An identification number assigned to individuals by the government. This number is required for all employees. If you don't already have a Social Security Number (or SSN), you should apply for one at least six weeks before starting a new job. There is no minimum age requirement for getting an SSN, in fact many hospitals will provide parents with the paperwork to apply for a number for a newborn child. Applications are also available from social security offices, post offices, and most employment offices. A child or adult needs a Social Security number in order to be claimed as a dependent on a tax return, to open a bank account, or to buy savings bonds. Some schools and government agencies may also require that you provide this number in order to obtain services.

Specialist - A person who is in a specific line of work or field of study. For example, a pediatrician is a specialist--a physician who only does children's medicine.

Specialty - In Career Kokua's Occupations file, this is an occupation that is part of another, broader occupation. A specialty is different enough in education, training, or licensing to be discussed separately from the primary occupation. However, a specialty is not a separate occupation because it usually is small in employment size and has little available wage or employment information. For example, taxation is a specialty of the larger area of accounting. People who are interested in a specialty should carefully review the information contained in both the specialty and the primary descriptions.

Specific Activities - A topic in Career Kokua's Occupations descriptions that lists the tasks or work activities distinctive to that occupation.

Split Shift - Shift of the workday in which workers may have varied work schedules. They may work day shift one week and evening shift the next. Others may work time periods that cross over the definitions of the shifts. For example, working 12:00 noon until 8:00 p.m. is working part of the day shift and part of the swing or evening shift. In other cases, this is the practice of an employee working for several hours, leaving the place of employment, and then returning to work the rest of the shift. For example, in restaurants, employees might work during breakfast and dinner mealtimes.

SOICC - State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee. SOICCs were state partners of NOICC and represented state agencies that focused on job training, vocational and technical education, employment security, vocational rehabilitation, economic development, and higher education. The Perkins Act of 1998 authorized the Secretary of Education to fund “state entities,” to be designated by the Governor and the state vocational education authority, to carry out many of the activities formerly conducted by SOICCs. Many SOICCs became those state entities.

Statistical Package (Abbreviated "StatPak") - A Career Kokua computer program which provides records of frequency of Career Kokua menu accesses, and a summary of the most requested information files.

Student Aid Report (SAR) - A report indicating details about your eligibility for federal financial aid, as determined by the information you submitted on the FAFSA. You have a chance to correct any information that has changed since submission of your FAFSA form.

Student Loan - Financial aid that must eventually be repaid.

Supervisor - A worker who assigns, oversees, directs, or inspects the work of others. Supervisors may be in charge of a unit, office, or department, and work in almost all types of occupations.

Swing Shift - Shift of the workday in which workers work the time period between day and night. This time period ranges approximately from 3:00 to 11:00 p.m. or 4:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. (midnight).

Teamwork-The process of having several employees work together on a project.

Technical School/College - A school that specializes in teaching particular techniques, such as computer operation. At this type of college, technical training is mixed with general education classes. However, there is less general education than in junior, community, or liberal arts colleges. Programs are usually designed so that students can go right into a career after completing the program. Some technical colleges offer associate degrees that students can transfer to a four-year university or college. Go to the Local Schools file under the Education & Training channel for information about Hawaii schools.

Tech-Prep - Tech-prep education programs are sequenced programs of study that combine at least two years of secondary education with a minimum of two years of postsecondary education in a nonduplicative, sequential course of study. They are designed to help students gain academic knowledge and technical skills, and often earn college credit for their secondary coursework. Programs are intended to lead to an associate's degree or a certificate in a specific career field, and ultimately, to high wage, high skill employment or advanced postsecondary training.

Technical Skills - Knowledge and skills specific to a particular occupation or group of occupations. For example, the technical skills for a plumber include installing and soldering pipes.

Tenure - The length of service or employment. Or, the guaranteed employment status that may be awarded to teachers and professors after they successfully complete certain requirements within a specific time period.

Term - The period of an academic year in which instruction is given. Colleges and universities typically operate on quarters, semesters, or trimesters.

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) - Test that evaluates the ability of a student whose native language is not English to communicate and understand English. Most colleges and universities require that international students take the TOEFL.

Tech-Prep - Tech-prep education programs are sequenced programs of study that combine at least two years of secondary education with a minimum of two years of postsecondary education in a nonduplicative, sequential course of study. They are designed to help students gain academic knowledge and technical skills, and often earn college credit for their secondary coursework. Programs are intended to lead to an associate's degree or a certificate in a specific career field, and ultimately, to high wage, high skill employment or advanced postsecondary training.

Topics - In Career Kokua topics are sections of information within each information file. Clickable topics lists are displayed on the left side of the screen in every file.

Trade School - A school specializing in applied skills--those skills that you use when physically performing an action, in order to earn wages. Thus you might attend a trade school to learn how to cut hair or fix a car engine. Go to the Local Schools file under the Education & Training channel for information about Hawaii schools.

Trainee - An individual who is learning skills necessary for an occupation.

Trainer - A person at a worksite who provides technical instruction to the employee, trainee, or student worker. In work-based learning situations, this individual is often the worksite mentor.

Transcript - An official copy of a student's educational record.

Transfer (Transfer of Credit) - Moving earned course credits from one school to another to complete a degree. College-level courses often transfer from one accredited institution easily, although students should inquire ahead of time. When students transfer, they need to make sure official transcripts are sent from all previous institutions to the new school's office of admissions.

Transfer Programs - Programs at the associate degree level, usually established at community colleges, consisting of two years of college work of a type normally transferable to institutions as the total completion of the first two years of a bachelor's degree program, including all general educational requirements.

Transferable Skills - Abilities, attributes and personal qualities a worker can use in more than one occupation.

Troubleshoot - To find the source of a problem and fix it.

Tuition - The charge for attending a college or university class.

Turnover - The measure of how frequently workers move in and out of an occupation or job. Turnover is often higher in jobs that have low training requirements, low pay, mundane or physically repetitive tasks, and few opportunities for promotion. Because employees move in and out of these jobs often, these jobs are easier to get.

Tutor - Knowledgeable adults or students who help other students study a specific subject. Some schools provide free tutors. At others, students must pay tutors an hourly rate.

Two-Year Community College - A two-year college that usually is public and serves the residents of a local or regional area. Most of these colleges admit all or most of the students who apply. Some programs, such as nursing, may be more selective. Students receive associate degrees after two years of successful full-time study. Go to the Local Schools file under the Education & Training channel for information about Hawaii schools.

Undergraduate Student - A student enrolled in a program leading to a certificate or an associate, baccalaureate, or other undergraduate degree.

Unemployed - An unemployed person is one who is without compensated work, is willing and available to work, and is actively seeking work.

Unemployment Insurance - Funds paid to unemployed workers during their job search. Unemployment Insurance is a program to accumulate funds paid by employers, to be used to pay workers during periods of unemployment which are beyond their control.

Union - An organization of individuals who are employed in the same industry or in similar jobs. The goal of a union is to improve salaries, working conditions, and benefits of its members.

University - An institute of higher learning that offers both undergraduate (associate and bachelor's) and graduate (master's and doctoral) programs. Universities vary considerably in programs offered and in size. Compared to colleges, universities are usually larger, offer more courses and majors, and have more research facilities. Universities may be divided into a number of "colleges," such as the College of Education or the College of Business. Each college has several departments, and each department may offer more than one major. Go to the Local Schools file under the Education & Training channel for information about Hawaii schools.

Unsubsidized Loan - A non-need-based loan such as an unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loan or Direct Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Loan. The borrower is responsible for paying the interest on an unsubsidized loan during in-school, grace, and deferment periods.

Upper-Division College - Schools that offer the last two years of undergraduate work, often in specialized programs leading to a bachelor's degree. Students transfer to these colleges after finishing their second year at a four-year college or an associate degree. Go to the Local Schools file under the Education & Training channel for information about Hawaii schools.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - The address system used by the Internet to locate web sites. A URL includes the type of resource being accessed, the address of the server, and the location of the file.

User Handbook - Booklet for Career Kokua users which includes the assessment questionnaires, computer access instructions, and lists of occupations, programs, schools, and other system information.

User Sites - Schools, agencies and organizations who contract with Career Kokua.

Users - Generic term for direct users (students and clients) of the Career Kokua system.

Veteran - An individual who completed active duty in the armed forces and was released with an honorable discharge or under honorable conditions.

Vita - A written summary of a job applicant's education and employment history. A vita and a resume are very similar; however, a vita generally contains more educational information. Vitas are usually used for educational settings, such as a university.

Vocation - The work (occupational or personal) or other major activity that a person is regularly occupied with. A person's vocation may be their career, the career they are working toward, or it may be an important hobby or activity that they devote much time and energy to.

Vocational - Pertaining to one's career, occupation, or professional development.

Wage - Actual money, earnings, or payment workers receive for their time and efforts. Workers may be compensated in hourly wages, commissions, tips, or salary.

Wages - A topic of Career Kokua's Occupations file. This topic provides typical monthly earnings of workers in the occupation. For occupations with a high number of part-time workers the earnings are listed at an hourly rate.

WIA (Workforce Investment Act) - The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 rewrote federal statutes governing programs of job training, adult education and literacy, and vocational rehabilitation, replacing them with streamlined and more flexible components of workforce development systems. The Act consolidated more than sixty federal training programs through three block grants to the states: Adult Employment and Training, Disadvantaged Youth Employment and Training, and Dislocated Worker Employment and Training. Funding and decision-making authority was transferred from the federal level to states and local areas. Local Workforce Development Boards were charged with developing One-Stop Career Centers that grant access to services to the public.

WICHE (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) - A program that assists Hawaii residents in attending out-of-state educational programs at reduced tuition rates. Go to the Programs of Study & Training file under the Education & Training channel for information.

WinWay Resume - Optional program for Career Kokua subscribers which provides resume and cover letter creation.

WOIS - Washington Career Information System. Links to Washington occupations, programs and schools are available on the Career Kokua web site.

Work - Conscious effort aimed at producing goods or services for the benefit of self or others. Work may be paid or unpaid.

Work-Based Learning - School sponsored career-learning activities that occur at a worksite and are connected with school-based learning. Activities may include job shadowing, mentorships, structured work experience, cooperative work experience, internships, community service learning, and registered youth apprenticeships. Use the Community Resources Directory to locate organizations that offer work-based learning activities.

Work Importance Locator - An assessment of Career Kokua ( under the Career Assessment channel) that matches occupations to work values.

Work Study Program - A federally-funded part-time employment program for undergraduate and graduate students. Eligibility is based on financial need. The earnings help students meet a portion of their educational expenses.

Workforce Development Council (WDC) - A private-sector led council responsible for advising the Governor on workforce development to support economic development and employment opportunities in the State.

Working Conditions - A topic in Career Kokua's Occupations file written to give an idea of the interpersonal relationships, physical working environments, performance demands, hours, travel and other conditions and settings required of the work.

Workers Compensation - Pay for people who have job-related illnesses or injuries or who are laid off from work. Under worker's compensation, funds are used for training assistance, rehabilitation, and illness and injury prevention programs.

Worksite - The physical location where the product is produced or service performed.

Workweek - The number of days or hours normally worked per week. The most common workweek for full-time workers is Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

World Wide Web (WWW) - A medium of information accessed via the Internet. The World Wide Web (or just "web") uses HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) to transmit data. To access web documents (called web pages or web sites), people use browsers such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Web sites are linked to each other via hypertext. Besides text, Web sites may also contain graphics, sounds, or video.

Year-Round - Refers to employment from January through December. However, school teachers and others employed a major part of the year are often considered to be full-time, year-round workers. Some work is seasonal, such as during the summer or a holiday period.

Social Science Research Assistants
Social science research assistants gather and analyze data.

Listed below are popular occupations here at Career Kokua.